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Preparation of chlorine

The production 1:

into the flask with a stopper pierced twice Pour the required amount of manganese dioxide (manganese dioxide) or potassium permanganate and close twice stopper pierced with a dropping funnel and outlet tube. The separating funnel přikapáváme the pyrolusite or permanganate diluted (1:1) hydrochloric acid so as to be uniformly developed chlorine and the reaction mixture nevykypěla exhaust tube. Chlorine is very aggressive (I once poisoned with chlorine and it's not pleasant, I was coughing blood and other nice things), and therefore the extraction or working out.

4HCl + MnO2 --> Cl2 + MnCl2 + 2H2O
16HCl + 2KMnO4 --> 5Cl2 + 2MnCl2 + 2KCl + 8H2O
Apparatus for the development of chlorine - conical flask, U-tube H2O and H2SO4

The production 2:

into the boiling flask Erlenmeyer 500 ml dry shake 25 g of manganese dioxide (pyrolusite) and 25 g of sodium chloride. The flask twice drilled stopper. In one hole insert a separating funnel so that its end reached about 3 cm above the manganese dioxide mixture and salt. Separating funnel is filled with sulfuric acid (1:1). In the second hole plugs into the glass tube and attach a piece of rubber tubing to promývačkám. It is necessary that the tubing as short as possible (chlorine is highly corrosive and tubing would not last). For the first washer that is empty will put one more in a quarter filled with conc. sulfuric acid (to remove hydrogen chloride and water). All joints should be paraffined. Tap in a separating funnel slowly embarking sulfuric acid. Develops chlorine can be developed by heating the steam flask. We work in a fume hood or outdoors.

amalgam electrolysis method

The production process is a bit more comprehensive and requires extensive technical background, but if you happen to get home :-) Dens mercury is already prohibited by this method is used only in the run-in large chemical plants, as against today's "eco-friendly" manufacturing processes providing chlorine in almost 100% pure and is much cheaper. Production is described in the book Chemical Engineering I of the 3rd year SPŠ chemical by M. Zbirovského, part of which I photocopied and placed on the given link.

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